3D seismic detection of shallow faults and fluid migration pathways offshore southern Costa Rica; application of neural-network meta-attributes

Author(s): Kluesner, J. W.; Silver, E. A.; Nale, S. M.; Bangs, N. L.; McIntosh, K. D.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of California Santa Cruz, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Santa Cruz, CA, United States
University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Geophysics, Austin, TX, United States
Volume Title: AGU 2013 fall meeting
Source: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Vol.2013; American Geophysical Union 2013 fall meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 9-13, 2013. Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States
Note: In English
Summary: We employ a seismic meta-attribute workflow to detect and analyze probable faults and fluid-pathways in 3D within the sedimentary section offshore Southern Costa Rica. During the CRISP seismic survey in 2011 we collected an 11 x 55 km grid of 3D seismic reflection data and high-resolvability EM122 multibeam data, with coverage extending from the incoming plate to the outer-shelf. We mapped numerous seafloor seep indicators, with distributions ranging from the lower-slope to ≈15 km landward of the shelf break [Kluesner et al., 2013, G3, doi:10.1002/ggge.20058; Silver et al., this meeting]. We used the OpendTect software package to calculate meta-attribute volumes from the 3D seismic data in order to detect and visualize seismic discontinuities in 3D. This methodology consists of dip-steered filtering to pre-condition the data, followed by combining a set of advanced dip-steered seismic attributes into a single object probability attribute using a user-trained neural-network pattern-recognition algorithm. The parameters of the advanced seismic attributes are set for optimal detection of the desired geologic discontinuity (e.g. faults or fluid-pathways). The product is a measure of probability for the desired target that ranges between 0 and 1, with 1 representing the highest probability. Within the sedimentary section of the CRISP survey the results indicate focused fluid-migration pathways along dense networks of intersecting normal faults with approximately N-S and E-W trends. This pattern extends from the middle slope to the outer-shelf region. Dense clusters of fluid-migration pathways are located above basement highs and deeply rooted reverse faults [see Bangs et al., this meeting], including a dense zone of fluid-pathways imaged below IODP Site U1413. In addition, fault intersections frequently show an increased signal of fluid-migration and these zones may act as major conduits for fluid-flow through the sedimentary cover. Imaged fluid pathways root into high-backscatter pockmarks and mounds on the seafloor, which are located atop folds and clustered along intersecting fault planes. Combining the fault and fluid-pathway attribute volumes reveals qualitative first order information on fault seal integrity within the CRISP survey region, highlighting which faults and/or fault sections appear to be sealing or leaking within the sedimentary section. These results provide 3D insight into the fluid-flow behavior offshore southern Costa Rica and suggest that fluids escaping through the deeper crustal rocks are predominantly channeled along faults in the sedimentary cover, especially at fault intersections.
Year of Publication: 2013
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 07 Marine Geology and Oceanography; Atlantic Ocean; Caribbean Sea; Central America; Costa Rica; Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project; East Pacific; Expedition 334; Expedition 344; Faults; Geophysical methods; Geophysical surveys; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; North Atlantic; North Pacific; Northeast Pacific; Pacific Ocean; Seismic methods; Surveys; Three-dimensional models
Coordinates: N082400 N084200 W0840000 W0841100
Record ID: 2015037325
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