Structure and composition of the plate-boundary slip zone for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

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doi: 10.1126/science.1243719
Author(s): Chester, Frederick M.; Rowe, Christie; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Kirkpatrick, James; Regalla, Christine; Remitti, Francesca; Moore, J. Casey; Toy, Virginia; Wolfson-Schwehr, Monica; Bose, Santanu; Kameda, Jun; Mori, James J.; Brodsky, Emily E.; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Toczko, Sean
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Expedition 343 and 343T Scientists, College Station, TX
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Texas A&M University, Center for Tectonophysics, College Station, TX, United States
Other:
McGill University, Canada
University of Tsukuba, Japan
Colorado State University, United States
Pennsylvania State University, United States
Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia largo, Italy
University of California Santa Cruz, United States
University of Otago, New Zealand
University of New Hampshire, United States
University of Calcutta, India
University of Tokyo, Japan
Kyoto University, Japan
Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Japan
Volume Title: Science
Source: Science, 342(6163), p.1208-1211. Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC, United States. ISSN: 0036-8075 CODEN: SCIEAS
Note: In English. 29 refs.; illus., incl. sects., geol. sketch map
Summary: The mechanics of great subduction earthquakes are influenced by the frictional properties, structure, and composition of the plate-boundary fault. We present observations of the structure and composition of the shallow source fault of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and tsunami from boreholes drilled by the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343 and 343T. Logging-while-drilling and core-sample observations show a single major plate-boundary fault accommodated the large slip of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake rupture, as well as nearly all the cumulative interplate motion at the drill site. The localization of deformation onto a limited thickness (less than 5 meters) of pelagic clay is the defining characteristic of the shallow earthquake fault, suggesting that the pelagic clay may be a regionally important control on tsunamigenic earthquakes.
Year of Publication: 2013
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 18 Geophysics, Solid-Earth; 19 Geophysics, Seismology; Asia; Bedding; Cores; Earthquakes; Expedition 343; Expedition 343T; Far East; Faults; Friction; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Japan; Japan Trench; Magnitude; Measurement-while-drilling; North Pacific; Northwest Pacific; Ocean floors; Pacific Ocean; Planar bedding structures; Plate boundaries; Plate tectonics; Sedimentary structures; Slip rates; Subduction zones; Tohoku-Oki earthquake 2011; West Pacific
Record ID: 2014014650
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute.

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