Onshore-offshore correlation of Pleistocene rhyolitic eruptions from New Zealand; implications for TVZ eruptive history and paleoenvironmental construction

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doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.07.026
Author(s): Alloway, Brent V.; Pillans, Brad J.; Carter, Lionel; Naish, Tim R.; Westgate, John A.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Wairakei Research Centre, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Taupo, New Zealand
University of Durham, United Kingdom
Australian National University, Australia
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand
GNS, New Zealand
University of Toronto, Canada
Volume Title: Quaternary land-ocean correlation; a tribute to Professor David Q. Bowen
Volume Author(s): Maddy, D., editor; Long, A. J.; Bridgland, D. R.
Source: Quaternary land-ocean correlation; a tribute to Professor David Q. Bowen, edited by D. Maddy, A. J. Long and D. R. Bridgland. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24(14-15), p.1601-1622. Publisher: Elsevier, International. ISSN: 0277-3791
Note: In English. Includes appendix. 86 refs.; illus., incl. 1 table, sketch maps
Summary: Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), in the North Island, New Zealand, is arguably the most active Quaternary rhyolitic system in the world. Numerous and widespread rhyolitic tephra layers, sourced from the TVZ, form valuable chronostratigraphic markers in onshore and offshore sedimentary sequences. In deep-sea cores from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 181 Sites 1125, 1124, 1123 and 1122, located east of New Zealand, ca 100 tephra beds are recognised post-dating the Plio-Pleistocene boundary at 1.81 Ma. These tephras have been dated by a combination of magnetostratigraphy, orbitally tuned stable-isotope data and isothermal plateau fission track ages. The widespread occurrence of ash offshore to the east of New Zealand is favoured by the small size of New Zealand, the explosivity of the mainly plinian and ignimbritic eruptions and the prevailing westerly wind field. Although some tephras can be directly attributed to known TVZ eruptions, there are many more tephras represented within ODP-cores that have yet to be recognised in near-source on-land sequences. This is due to proximal source area erosion and/or deep burial as well as the adverse effect of vapour phase alteration and devitrification within near-source welded ignimbrites. Despite these difficulties, a number of key deep-sea tephras can be reliably correlated to equivalent-aged tephra exposed in uplifted marine back-arc successions of Wanganui Basin where an excellent chronology has been developed based on magnetostratigraphy, orbitally calibrated sedimentary cycles and isothermal plateau fission track ages on tephra. Significant Pleistocene tephra markers include: the Kawakawa, Omataroa, Rangitawa/Onepuhi, Kaukatea, Kidnappers-B, Potaka, Unit D/Ahuroa, Ongatiti, Rewa, Sub-Rewa, Pakihikura, Ototoka and Table Flat Tephras. Six other tephra layers are correlated between ODP-core sites but have yet to be recognised within onshore records. The identification of Pleistocene TVZ-sourced tephras within the ODP record, and their correlation to Wanganui Basin and other onshore sites is a significant advance as it provides: (1) an even more detailed history of the TVZ than can be currently achieved from the near-source record, (2) a high-resolution tephrochronologic framework for future onshore-offshore paleoenvironmental reconstructions, and (3) well-dated tephra beds correlated from the offshore ODP sites with astronomically tuned timescales provide an opportunity to critically evaluate the chronostratigraphic framework for onshore Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary sequences (e.g. Wanganui Basin, cf. Naish et al. [1998. Quaternary Science Reviews 17 695-710]. Abstract Copyright (2005) Elsevier, B.V.
Year of Publication: 2005
Research Program: ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 24 Surficial Geology, Quaternary Geology; Absolute age; Ash; Australasia; Australian Plate; C-14; Carbon; Cenozoic; Chronostratigraphy; Continental margin; Correlation; Dates; Deep-sea environment; Depositional environment; Eruptions; Igneous rocks; Ignimbrite; Isotopes; Leg 181; Marine environment; Neogene; New Zealand; North Island; ODP Site 1122; ODP Site 1123; ODP Site 1124; ODP Site 1125; Ocean Drilling Program; Pacific Plate; Paleoenvironment; Plate tectonics; Pleistocene; Plinian-type eruptions; Pliocene; Pyroclastics; Quaternary; Radioactive isotopes; Rhyolitic composition; Stratigraphy; Taupo volcanic zone; Tertiary; Volcanic rocks; Volcanism; Wanganui Basin; Wind transport
Coordinates: S463447 S463447 W1772337 W1772337
S414710 S414710 W1712956 W1712956
S392954 S392954 W1763154 W1763154
S423259 S423259 W1780959 W1780959
Record ID: 2006035429
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from CAPCAS, Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands